Hop Verification Using Neighbor Broadcasting for Inter and Intra Reliability Link Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

IJEECC Front Page

In wireless sensor networks, malicious nodes can repeatedly break routes. Breaking the routes will increase the packet delivery latency. Hence we propose a protocol known as E-STAR for establishing stable and reliable routes in heterogeneous multihop wireless sensor networks. The payment and trust systems are combined in E-STAR with a trust based and energy aware routing protocol. The nodes that relay other packets are rewarded by the payment system. The nodes competence and its reliability in relaying packets are evaluated by the trust system. The trust values which are needed to make routing decisions are attached to the nodes public key certificates. SRR and BAR are two routing protocols which are developed to direct traffic to those highly trusted nodes having sufficient energy to minimize the probability of breaking the route. The nodes are stimulated by E-STAR to not only relay the packets but also to maintain route stability and maintain correct battery energy capability. Through analytical results it is proved that E-STAR can secure payment and trust calculation without false accusations. The packet delivery ratio and route stability is improved by using E-STAR protocol.
Keywords: AES – Advanced Encryption Standard; BAR – Best Available Route; E-STAR – Establishing Stable And Reliable Routes; HMWNs – Heterogeneous Multihop Wireless Networks; SRR – Shortest Reliable Route.


  1. S. Zhong, J. Chen, and R. Yang et al (2003), “Sprite: A Simple, Cheat-Proof, Credit Based System for Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’03, vol. 3, pp. 1987-1997.
  2. M. Mahmoud and X. Shen, “ESIP: Secure Incentive Protocol with Limited Use of Public-Key Cryptography for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol.10, no. 7, pp.997-1010, July 2011.
  3. G. Theodorakopoulos and J.S. Baras, “On Trust Models and Trust Evaluation Metrics for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol.24, no.2, pp. 318-328, Feb. 2006.
  4. P. Velloso, R. Laufer, D. Cunha, O. Duarte, and G. Pujolle, “Trust management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using a Scalable Maturity-Based Model,” IEEE Trans. Network and Service Management, vol.7, no.3, pp. 172-185, Sept. 2010.
  5. S. Lindsay, Y. Wei, H. Zhu, and K. Liu, “Information Theoretic Framework of Trust Modeling and Evaluation for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol.24, no. 2, pp. 305-317, Feb.2006.
  6. M. Yu and K. Leung, “A Trustworthiness-Based Qos Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no.4, pp. 1888-1898, Apr. 2009.