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Implementation of WSN in Disaster Detection and Monitoring

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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are one of the emerging areas which have equipped scientists with the capability of developing real-time monitoring systems. This paper discusses the development of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to detect landslides, which includes the design, development and of a WSN for real time monitoring. When a lot of soil, rocks and other stuff slides down a hill it is called a landslide. Landslides are caused by rain and melting snow that goes into cracks in the earth on top of a mountain or hill. Then the earth is weakened because the water makes the soil loose. Detection, monitoring and control are the three major issues regarding Real-Time applications. A Land-Slide detection system is being developed at Dehradun, India, a region with high rainfall and versatile climatic behavior most of the year. In this project we proposed using ARM microcontroller and zigbee wireless technology.
I.Introduction
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has the capability of quick capturing, processing, and transmission of critical data in real-time with high resolution. However, it has its own limitations such as relatively low amounts of battery power and low memory availability compared to many existing technologies. It does, though, have the advantage of deploying sensors in hostile environments with a bare minimum of maintenance. This fulfills a very important need for any real time monitoring, especially in hazardous or remote scenarios. We aim to use the wireless sensor networks in the landslide scenario1 for estimating the chance occurrence of landslides. India faces landslides every year with a large threat to human life causing annual loss of US $400 million. The main goal of this effort is to detect rainfall induced landslides which occur commonly in India.
Landslides occur during monsoons in India, causing great loss of life and property. An early warning system for landslide prediction can reduce these losses to a good extent. Wireless sensors are one of the cutting edge technologies that can quickly respond to rapid changes of data and send the sensed data to a data analysis center in areas where cabling is inappropriate. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has the capability of quick capturing, processing, and transmission of critical data in real-time with high resolution. A sensor network can collect, aggregate, and analyze from a multi-point perspective diverse and distributed data.
The availability of distributed data can improve the general understanding of landslide dynamics and can enable the detection of patterns that would be otherwise very hard to identify. In the case of landslides, particular patterns of relevant parameters (e.g. pour water pressure or slope displacements) could indicate the approaching of critical conditions of the slope..

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