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AODV is a prominent routing protocol for MANET that uses hop count as a path selection metric. However, AODV has no means to convey traffic load on current route. This study focuses on introducing two metrics such as , Aggregate Interface Queue Length (AIQL) and link quality, in AODV to deal with load balancing issues. In this paper, the network performance is enhanced by balancing the load using queue length and link quality. Moreover through the simulation, it is shown that the modified protocol performs better than the conventional AODV in terms of the average throughput, average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio
Keywords: MANET, AODV, AIQL, Load Balancing
A mobile ad hoc network is defined as a collection of mobile platforms or nodes where each node is free to move about arbitrarily. Each node logically consists of a router that may have multiple hosts and that also may have multiple wireless communication devices [4]. The routing protocols in MANETs can be categorized into three different groups: Global/Proactive, on demand/ Reactive and Hybrid routing protocols. [6] In global routing protocols, each node stores and maintains routing information to every other node in the network. In on-demand routing protocols, routes are created when required by the source node, rather than storing up-to-date routing tables. Hybrid routing protocols combine the basic properties of the two classes of protocols mentioned earlier. In practice, some routes get congested, while other routes remain underutilized. This results in poor performance of mobile ad hoc networks. Therefore, the need for balancing the load distribution among various routes becomes more important. In this paper, an attempt to enhance the network performance is made. Moreover through the simulation, it is shown that the modified AODV can perform better than the conventional AODV. Also, the effect of interface queue length and link quality on normalized routing load, average throughput and average end to end delay are observed.
PROBLEMS OF ADHOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS: A major drawback of all existing ad hoc routing protocols is that they do not have provisions for conveying the load and/or quality of a path during route setup. Hence they cannot balance the load on different routes. Also, both proactive and reactive protocols chose a route based on the metric, the smallest number of hops to the destination. But it may not be the most significant route when there is congestion or bottleneck in the network. It may cause the packet drop rate, packet end-to-end delay, or routing overhead to be increased particularly in the cases when the traffic is concentrated on a special node like a gateway through which mobile nodes from ad hoc network can connect to Internet.
There are various proposed algorithms for load balancing that consider traffic load as a route selector, but these algorithms neither reflect burst traffic nor transient congestion [2]. In order to ensure uninterrupted communication and in order to make routing protocols more efficient in presence of node movement, tow issues, Route maintenance and Bandwidth reservation need due mention. A very good solution to these issues is multi path routing. Due to such multi path routing, even if one path fails, data can still be routed to the destination using the other routes. Thus, the cost of rediscovering new path can be salvaged. While selecting the path set the following issues need due consideration. The distribution of load should be even. Mobile nodes with lower traffic load should be preferred to the heavily loaded mobile nodes. The traffic load in the medium surrounding the mobile nodes on the routes should be light. The paths should comprise of nodes with high residual battery power. If a link is highly reliable, it is advantageous to allow it to be shared by more than one path.


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