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Collision Avoidance System in Heavy Traffic and Blind Spot Assist Using Ultrasonic Sensor

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By this project, the goal is to design a collision avoidance system which is reliable for drivers in heavy traffic where the speed is generally below 20 km/hr. the purpose of the automatic collision system is to keep drivers better informed with the environment surrounding them. The system consist eight different sensing positions front, rear, side and as well as front and rear diagonal positions. Primarily ultrasonic sensors, microcontroller and a set of LEDS are used to implement the design. The blind spot assist will be useful while changing the lanes in highway, it finds presence of vehicle which is in your blind spot and gives alarm. The success of the proposed system can reduce human suffering caused by injury and death. The financial burden will be reducing because maintenance and replacements of parts of vehicle are avoided. Ideally the system should be installed in every automobile on road.
Keyword:Ultrasonic sensor, Arduino, blind spot, Lane change assist.
The collision avoidance and blind spot detection plays a key role in drive safety because the presence of the blind spot on both sides of vehicle causes inconvenience to the driver while he changes the lane . The proposed system also avoids the possibility of collision and scratches of the vehicle in heavy traffic where the speed is below 20 km/h. In India about 75% of the vehicle collision is been detected under low speed. Low speed collision in heavy traffic indicates the need of the anti-collision device which is well suited for driving in city premises. The rear end collision contributes more, so the proposed system keeps the driver in alert mode in order to prevent the collision. The proposed system makes use of the ultra sonic sensor for both the collision as well as blind spot detection because of three advantages. 1) The cost is less compared to radar, lidar or cameras and is well suited for automobile application. 2) The distance calculation is very much simpler and does not need any complex computation. 3) Surface measurement of the sensor is large. The ultrasonic sonic sensor can be used to detect the object in drivers blind spot at an absolute speeds around 160km/h. The schematic block diagram of the proposed system is shown below (figure 1). It consists of ultrasonic sensor which senses the object in the preset range, arduino platform which manipulates the data which is received from sensor. Next comes the data presentation part in which it alerts the driver when the vehicle comes in the preset range. Buzzer has been implemented to give the sound warning and LED can be used as light warning.
The Ultrasonic sensor works on the principle of transmitting ultrasonic burst which is well above the human hearing range. It provides an output pulse which gives the measure of time required by the burst to hit and bounce back to the sensor which is termed as echo time pulse. The sensor emits 40 kHz burst which can travel in air at about 1130 feet/second. The time when the trigger pulse is given to the sensor it emits the ultrasonic burst and echo pin is get set. The echo pin resets when the sensor detects the echo of the burst, thus the pulse width of the echo is the measure of twice the distance between the sensor and the object.


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